A Historical Study on the Founding of The Institute of History and Philology in Guangzhou in 1928 (Part One)(5) It's between Wenming Road and Dongshan Solitary Court Street in Guangzhou.
2023-06-18 下午 04:00   作者:arui,translated by fang bochen   

  Section 2:South West Ethnic Survey

  Shi Guolu and Yang Chengzhi's fieldwork in Yunnan was both as a commissioner for the investigation of the southwestern ethnic groups at the Institute of Linguistics of the National Sun Yat-sen University and as part of the implementation of the research on the "southwestern languages", one of the areas of linguistic research defined by the Institute of Philology and History during the Guangzhou period. In his Report on the Survey of the Ethnic Groups of Yunnan, Yang Chengzhi explicitly mentions that he "was sent to Yunnan to investigate the ethnic groups of the southwest on the mission of both the Institute and the Institute of Philology and History of the Academia Sinica." Shi Guolu published "A Note on the Lolos" in English, mentioning a visit to Yunnan in 1928 to investigate the living conditions of the Lolos in the south-eastern part of the country and to complete this research. Yang Chengzhi, meanwhile, was still trekking through the mountains and only returned to Guangzhou a year later.

  In May 1928, Fu Sinian drafted the scope and purpose of linguistic research in Guangzhou, and was adopted by the preparatory members to determine the division of linguistic research into Chinese dialects, Southwestern languages, and Central Asian languages, with Yu concentrating on the field of linguistics.

  On 15 November 1928, Yang Chengzhi wrote to Zhong Jingwen and Yu Yongliang: "I think back on how comfortable life was for the four of us - Mr. and Mrs. Shi Luguo, Mr. and Mrs. Yung Zhaozu and myself - when we set out from Guangzhou on 12 July, passing through Annam and staying in Kunming for a month. However, in the middle of the journey, Mr. and Mrs. Shi did not come because of the danger of the long journey.But I alone, hire a servant, I set out from Kunming on the first of September and arrived in Dongchuan in seven days and in Qiaojia in five days, having experienced the hardships of the journey. [29] The destination of this survey was the Luo Luo colony in Liangshan, and Yang Chengzhi thus learned the Luo Luo language. When he wrote to Fu Sinian on 26 December, he also wrote some Lolo texts about numbers, families and the zodiac, and begged Mr. Fu or Mr. Gu to write a long letter, as he was very eager to receive comfort from his hometown and school, and had "not received a single word for five months so far". In a letter to Yung Siu-tsu from the Jinsha Riverfront on 26 March 1929, Yang Chengzhi wrote: "I received a letter from Beiming Jun today and was pleased to learn that our Folklore Weekly has produced many special issues." "During my unpredictable travels, I have repeatedly wanted to write to you, only because I have often reported to Mr. Meng Zhen and Mr. Gu Jie, and I thought you must have read them. --So I have repeatedly put pen to paper, but I have not been able to write." In the Folklore Weekly and the Weekly of thethe Institute of Philology and History, although Yang Chengzhi was on the road, he continued to publish his letters and articles, basically short essays on the folklore of the Southwest. "The author was Wu Beiming, who was then employed as a clerk at the Institute of Philology and History.

  The letters were published in issues 66 and 70 of the weekly magazine of the Institute of Philology and History at Sun Yat-sen University, and a total of five academic correspondences between Yang Zhicheng and various colleagues were published in the Weekly. After an arduous journey of nearly two years, Yang Chengzhi returned to Guangzhou on 23 March 1930. He completed his Report on the Ethnic Survey of Yunnan on 28 May 1930, which was published in the Lingnan Journal (Vol. 1, No. 3) in June 1930. He also delivered a lecture at his alma mater, Lingnan University, Kanglan, on 1 May 1930, his first lecture after graduating from his alma mater for more than three years. [30] The Institute of Philology and History of National Sun Yat-sen University issued a single edition.

  Yang Chengzhi first published his paper in the Collected Works of the Institute of History and Philology at a later date, in the second part of the fourth volume of the Collected Works, "A Translation of the Luo Luo Taishang Qing Jing Yan Jing". Yang Chengzhi was actually one of the most in-depth scholars in the minority areas, and was one of the most important supporters of language and folklore research in Guangzhou after the Institute of History and Philology moved to Beiping. He wrote on the end of this article, "Completed in the Editorial Office of the Institute of History and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University, February 20, 1931."

  Section 3:Investigation of Guangdong and Guangxi Dialects

  On September 8, 1928, Zhao Yuanren sent a letter to Fu Sinian about the investigation plan of Guangzhou dialect. At the same time, Zhao Yuanren started the preliminary preparation of the investigation of Cantonese dialect, including the study of various monographs. On October 28, zhao left Peiping for Shanghai. On November 10, Zhao and his wife arrived in Guangzhou. Zhao began to give lectures at Sun Yat-sen University and began to investigate dialects on December 9. On December 22, the use of sun Yat-sen University biology department teacher Shi Shenghan invited Yao in Guangzhou to record the sound of the opportunity to yao sing 197 yao song listen to. In December, Institute of History and Philology of Academia Sinica  sent a letter to schools at all levels, sending Zhao Yuanren to investigate dialects. Please check and consult with me. On December 24, Zhao Yuanren went to Sanshui in the morning, looking for speakers to memorize the pronunciation of Sanshui Street in the county middle school, and then went to Guangxi to investigate the Cantonese dialect in Guangxi. On January 3, 1929, he completed a six-day survey of Nanning dialect, then went to Wuzhou to record the rural accents in the north of Wuzhou, and returned to Guangzhou on January 11. From January 12 to February 2, 1929, he made investigations in Jiangmen, Xinhui, Taishan and other places in Guangdong. On the 18th, he returned to Guangzhou. On the 19th, he went north to Shaoguan to investigate and record the dialects of northern Guangdong. On the 23rd, he returned to Guangzhou. On the 24th, he went to Shantou by boat and conducted investigation in Shantou and Chaozhou. On February 1st, he returned to Guangzhou and worked for a few days. [31]

  Zhao Yuanren travelled from western Guangdong to Guangxi, making field recordings and other research work along the way, before leaving Guangzhou on 4 February and arriving in Shanghai by sea liner from Hong Kong, returning to Beiping 20 days later. On 3 February, colleagues from the Institute of Language and History at Sun Yat-sen University and the Institute of History and Philology at Academia Sinica met in BaiYuan to send Zhao Yuanren back to Beiping.

  On 20 January 1929, Luo Changpei's "Luo Changpei's Personal Research Plan and the Work Plan of the Rhyming Book Research Group" wrote: "A Study of the Guangzhou Dialect" There are no less than dozens of Western writings on the Guangzhou dialect, but few domestic scholars have yet to specialize in it. The results of Mr. Zhao's survey this time have already given a scale to the study of Guangzhou dialect. Chang Pei intends to apply the results obtained by Mr. Zhao and collect more materials by cards to engage in longitudinal studies on etymology, grammar and its relationship with rhyming books." [32]

  On 21 February 1929 in Guangzhou, Li Fanggui completed the Guangxi Lingyun Yao language, and in the same month Fu Sian and Zhao Yuanren wrote to Zhuang Zexuan, conveying their welcome to Dr Li Fanggui to work at the Institute as a full-time researcher, with the terms of his appointment, for the study of dialects, working in Guangzhou and the southeastern dialect areas, and on 18 October 1928 he forwarded his curriculum vitae through Zhuang Zexuan, then Director of the Institute of Education. Li Fanggui was born in Guangzhou and returned to China with a PhD in linguistics from the United States. He studied the pronunciation of the Hainan Island dialect using devices in Guangdong and discovered the "aspirated consonants" in the Qiongshan Lehui dialect, as well as the dialects of the Bapai of Yao people in northern Guangdong.

  Published in Guangzhou on 26 June 1929, issues 85-86-87 of the Weekly were published as a special issue on dialects, is the result of research by a number of researchers who are both researchers in the Institute of Philology and History(YuShiSuo) and the Institute of History and Philology(ShiYuSuo) , concentrating on the areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Guangxi and Hainan Island, where the original Institute of History and Philology had set up its dialect research programme. Luo Changpei mentions in the colophon that he proposed this special issue and the special issue on cut rhymes, which was published after a year's delay, and that he wrote the colophon on 13 January 1929 at his apartment in Dongshan, before moving to Beiping. [33].

  On 1 May 1929 Cai Yuanpei wrote to Chen Yinke and Zhao Yuanren, thanking them for their appointment and expressing his confidence in the next move to Beiping.

  Section 4:Academic Team Formation

  On 5 May 1928, three preparatory members of the Institute of History and Philology, Fu Sian, Gu Jie Gang and Yang Zhensheng, wrote jointly to Cai Yuanpei and Yang Xingfo of the Academia Sinica, proposing a list of fellows for the Institute of History and Philology, including Hu Shi, Chen Yuan, Chen Yinke, Zhao Yuanren, Yu Dawei, Liu Fu, Ma Jian, Lin Yutang, Zhu Xizhu, Rong Geng, Xu Dishan, Li Zong Dong, Xu Bing Chang, Li Ji, Yuan Fuli, Luo Jialun, Feng Youlan and Shi Luguo, a total of 19 A total of 19 persons are proposed for appointment as Fellows. Those who teach at Sun Yat-sen University are to be appointed as He Sijing, Rong Zhaozu, Dong Zubin, Yu Yongliang, Huang Zhongqin and Xin Shuqi, while foreign scholars are to be appointed as Paul Pelliet, F.W.K. Muller and Bernard Karlgren. He also requested Cai Yuanpei to be the director of the Institute.

  The list includes Shi Guolu, a Russian anthropologist and professor employed by the Institute of Philology and History at Sun Yat-sen University, who also taught geography for a week in English after the establishment of the Department of Geography.

  Yu Yongliang was the first to prepare and research the most effective talent, Yu Yongliang in the Institute of Philology and History after editing the "Southwest Ethnic Studies Special Edition" single line wrote: "want to build up the history of Philology each into an independent discipline, all the tools given to us by the natural sciences, have to bear to expand our ability, broken examination and collation into a systematic organization. " Many of the authors of this special numbered single volume are from the science faculty. After the establishment of the Institute of Historical Studies, he became an editor. The first book and first division of the Collected Works of the Institute of Historical Philology published 'The Age of the Yi Gua Rhetoric and its Authors', and in the first issue of 1929 the 'Report on the Excavations at Anyang' published 'A Postscript to the Postscript of the Newly Acquired Divination Writings'. Fu Sinian was also prepared to send Mr Yu Yongliang to Paris to study the Dunhuang materials in the French collection, and on 20 April 1929 Fu Sinian wrote to inform Yu Yongliang that he had been approved by President Cai Yuanpei, but unfortunately in 1930 Mr Yu suffered from mental illness.

  The first batch of assistants employed in Guangzhou period. On September 18, 1928, Li Guangming was employed as an assistant. After he graduated from Sun Yat-sen University in 1927, he went to Sichuan to complete the Investigation Report on Chuankang Folk Customs. On August 11, 1928, it was recorded in the file directory that "Assistant Li Guangming jun went to Sichuan to investigate folk customs and other utensils purchase expenses". Li Guangming's school roll sheet shows that he was born in Guanxian County, Sichuan Province. He was transferred to our school twice from Southeast University. Fu Sinian served as a guarantor.

  On 20 September 1928 the Institute of History and Philology  Chang Hui (1894-1985), a graduate of Peking University and promoter of ballads, completed his Report on the Survey of Yungang and published it in the Collected Works on 29 September 1929, and completed his Report on the Survey of Monuments in Shaanxi in October 1933. On October 4, 1928, the Institute of History and Philology  hired Zhao Bongyan and Wang Yong as assistants, and on October 21, 1929, the Institute of Historical Studies wrote to the Datong County Government that Zhao Bongyan would go to Yungang in October to investigate the site and hoped to protect it. Zhao Bangyan investigated the site and returned to Beiping in November to form a paper and material of great historical value on the Yungang Grottoes statues, one of the most significant practical achievements of the statue conservation and data collection initiated by Gu Jiegang and Fu Sian in Guangzhou in May 1928. Zhao Bangyan's 'A short note on the investigation of the Yungang statues' and 'An examination of the games seen in Han painting' are both high-quality research documents in Chinese art history. Wang Yong graduated in June 1928, did not take up employment and went to teach at Nanjing Girls' High School. He was employed at the National Jinan University in 1929, but published a high-quality article, A Historical Account of Ancient Chinese Coastal Transportation, in the Weekly on 30 January 1929.


The picture shows the school registration form of Li Guangming, a native of Gou County, Sichuan, who transferred to the University from Southeast University, with Fu Sian acting as guarantor, and entered the University in October 1927 as a fourth-year student of literature and history, stored in the Archives of Guangdong Province.

  In September 928, Fu Sinian wrote to Mr. Yang Xingfo, suggesting that Mr. Xu Zhongshu be employed as an editor of the Institute of History and Philology, which was approved.

  On 18 February, Dong Zubin wrote to Fu Sinian, informing him that he and Li Ji had decided to start work next spring and to recommend Guo Baojun as an assistant to the Institute, with the intention of submitting his report within a month. It was a year before Guo Baojun was recruited and became an important assistant to Dong Zubin. He also recommended Yin Da and Shi Zhangru to join the Institute of History and Philology and became a pillar. In 1931, Guo Baojun took part in the excavations at Xincun, and published "The Cleaning of the Ancient Remains of the Tomb at Xincun, Jion County" in the Journal of Collected Works, based on his field notes.

  Chen Pán was in his third year at the time of the establishment of the Institute of History and Philology in 1928, and joined the Institute after graduation. It has become an important new academic force, and the research achievements of Chunqiu Zuo Zhuan are quite abundant.When he was a student, he worked under the guidance of Mr. Gu Jie-gang on a study of the evolution of the Yellow Emperor, and on April 3, 1928, he completed his thesis, which was published in issue 28 of the Weekly on May 9, 1928. 

  Chapter 5: The founders of the Institute of History and Philology who did not come to Peking

  On 31 January 1929, Fu sent a letter to Cai Yuanpei, enclosing Luo Changpei's reply of 20 January and his personal work plan, A Study of Guangzhou Dialects and a Study of Equivalent Rhymes, planning to resign from his teaching post at CUHK next month to become a full-time researcher at the Institute of History and Philology.

  Section I: Contribution of Gu Jie Gang

  On 1 March 1927 Gu Jie Gang wrote in his diary, "Two quick letters came from Meng Zhen asking me to go to Zhongshan University in Guangdong to run the Institute of Chinese Oriental Languages and Historical Sciences." [35] Upon his arrival at the university, Mr. Gu Jie Gang became the head of the History Department and the head of the Chinese Department of the Library. In issue 62-64 of 1929, Gu Jie-gang wrote a foreword: "We have actually experienced more than a year since the establishment of this 'Institute of Philology-Historical Sciences'." Gu Jie Gang sums up the past and is hopeful for the future: "In folklore, there is no limit to the collection of materials, so that there will be our comrades in every metropolis and remote area, and a new frontier will be opened up in the richness of the materials. It will enable many people to gain a fundamental understanding of the various living conditions of the Chinese people. In history, linguistics and archaeology, we can at least use the achievements of our predecessors as a starting point, and more gradually collect new facts and create new systems." The journal includes a catalogue of the Archaeology Series.

  On February 6, 1928, Gu Jie's diary records that Gu Jie invited Luo Changpei to his home, "Tonight, in order to discuss the Institute (the Institute of Philology and History was established in Guangzhou in addition to the Institute of Philology and History of the Sun Yat-sen University), I invited Xintian and others to my home for discussion. The next day, he discussed the matter again with Fu Sinian and Rong Zhaozu at school. Peng Weitang came.

  Walked to school with Cui'an for a lesson on 'Ancient History'. With Jingwen Yongliang to Lingnan University, lecture.

  Dinner in front of the university. Returned, ordered 'The Answer to the Tai Oath' and finished briefly.

  Today I went to Lingnan University to give a lecture entitled 'Sage Culture and Popular Culture' to promote the Folklore Society. The audience was 60 to 70 people.

  Mr. Cai has sent a telegram saying that the Institute of Philology and History of the Academia Sinica will remit the money and send the preparatory committee as usual, so the matter can proceed." [36]

  The diary of Mr. Gu provides accurate information about the preparatory members and the time of preparation. From the diary kept by Mr. Gu in Guangzhou, we can learn about his daily life, his close relationship with young teachers such as Yu Yongliang and Zhong Jingwen, his fellow teachers Huang Zhongqin, Yung Zhaozu, Ding Shan and Luo Changpei, etc. He often dined at his home with Fu Sian and Yung Zhaozu. From his home in Dongshan to Wenming Road, he often walked back to school to attend classes. When he went to Xiguan for shopping or to Yuexiu Mountain, he often hired a car.

  The "Preparatory Measures" submitted to Cai Yuanpei and Yang Hengfo on 28 February 1928 were drafted jointly by Gu Jie and Fu Sian, with many references to the use of Gu Jie's existing research findings, such as "All the materials of the legacy of Meng Jiangnu and their analysis" and "Ancient History in Zhou Yi". "From April onwards, Gu Jie-gang and Fu Sian discussed the Institute as two research institutes. The Institute moved to BaiYuan, which is referred to in the diary as the "Central Research Institute"

  On May 25, 1928, Gu Jie Gang wrote to Mr. Rong Geng (Xibai), "The Institute of History has decided to ask you to be a researcher, which I ask you not to resign, because it is not paid (the salary is limited to full-time researchers), but only to give us one or two articles a year." "In the future, this Institute of Philology and History can be combined with your Chinese Academy, the National Academy of Peking University, the Institute of Philology and History of the Chinese University, and the Institute of National Studies of Tsinghua University to do some practical work." [37] These were Gu Jie-gang's thoughts on the future development of the Institute of History and Philology when he was in Guangzhou.

  On 24 December 1928, Gu Jie Gang drew up a plan for a documentary revision group atthe Institute of History and Philology, and on 24 December 1928 he appointed Mr Gu as a full-time researcher and on 10 January 1929 he appointed Mr Gu as the director of the documentary revision group. President Cai Yuanpei was an important promoter of the establishment of the Institute of History and Philology, from the formulation of the plan to the provision of funds. On 13 October 1928, Gu's diary records that "Meng Zhen has been appointed Director of the Institute of History and Philology of the Academia Sinica, so the Director of the Institute of Philology and History of the Chinese University must resign. He wrote a signboard for the Institute of History and Philology of the Academia Sinica on 29 October 1928, and on 3 February 1929 he met at the Park to send Zhao Yuanren back to Beiping. He arrived in Hong Kong from Guangzhou on 24 February 1929 and stayed at the Great China Hotel, which coincidentally was an important hotel for the victory rescue at the end of 1941. After he left Guangzhou in 1929, Mr. Gu published an article in the Weekly, No. 70, on 27 February 1929. The note mentioned that letters on personal matters were to be forwarded to Xia Tingzuo, Assistant Professor of the Department of History, or to Wei Yinglin, Assistant Member of the Institute, and that Gu Jie-gang did not go to Beiping to participate in the work of the Institute of History and Philology, but that his status as the founder of the Institute should be remembered in history.



  [29] Yang Chengzhi: The Collected Works of Yang Chengzhi, Guangzhou: Zhongshan University Press, 2004, 232 pp.

  [30] Yang Chengzhi, Yang Chengzhi's Anthropological Ethnographic Anthology, Beijing: Nationalities Press, 2003, 132 pp.

  [31] Zhao Xinna and Huang Peiyun, The Chronology of Zhao Yuanren, Beijing: Commercial Press, 1998, 160 pp.

  [32] Wang Fan-sen, Pan Guangzhe, and Wu Zhengshang: The Posthumous Notes of Fu Sian, Beijing: Social Science Literature Publishing House, 2011, 94 pp.

  [33] National Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Language History, National Sun Yat-sen University: The Complete Weekly Collection of the Institute of Language History, National Sun Yat-sen University, 6 volumes, Beijing: National Printing House Press, 2011, 187 p.

  [34] Wang Fan-sen, Pan Guangzhe, and Wu Zhengshang: "Fu Sian's Last Journal," Beijing: Social Science Literature Press, 2011, 129 pp.

  [35] Gu Jie-gang's Diary, vol. 2, Beijing: China Book Bureau, 2011, 22 pp.

  [36] Gu Jie-gang, Gu Jie-gang's Diary, vol. 2, Beijing: Zhonghua Book Bureau, 2011, 147 pp.

  [37] Gu Jie-gang, Gu Jie-gang's Letters, vol. 2, Beijing: Zhonghua Shuji, 2011, 183 pp.


  (to be continued)


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