III. Men should be tough
Gu Jiegang's Diary, 21 October, writes: "Writing a letter for Ding Sheng. Read 'A Two-Month Inspection of Yao Shan'. Gongfu came. I went to Shu Xiu's place, but I did not meet them. I came with Yuan Tui couple and his sister, and went out with Cui An's son. Zhongqin comes with his second son. He writes a postscript to his book "The Investigation of Yao Shan", but he does not finish it. Zhongqin came and went to a meeting with Meng Zhen to discuss the Academia Sinica and to see the house."
There were a total of 15 excavations at the Anyang excavation, with the National Academia Sinica's Archaeological Group as the participating workers, and the names of the groups formed changed over time depending on the era. The first excavation was called the "Stratigraphic Committee", the second "Field Work of the Old Archaeological Group of the Institute of History and Language of the Central Research Institute of the National Government", and the third "Changde Office of the Archaeological Group of the National Academia Sinica， The third excavation was called the "Changde Office of the National Academies of Academia Sinica". The first was chaired by Dong Zuobin, with six participants: Zhang Jinxi, Guo Baojun, Li Chunyu, Zhao Ziting and Wang Xiangxing. Zhang Jinxi and Guo Baojian were representing Henan Province. The second excavation, chaired by Li Ji, included Dong Zuobin, Dong Guangzhong, Wang Qingchang, Wang Xiang and Fei Wenzhong, and began on 7 March and ended on 9 May 1928. (Quoted from A Brief History of the Anyang Excavations by Shi Zhangru.)
On January 15, 1930, Fu Sian wrote to Huang Jiyou, the letter said, "Sun Yat-sen University colleagues to treat my brother's money bolt, thinking of the deep, the next time to Bianan, will make a system of speech." Sun Yat-sen University students in the letter can have two levels of understanding at this time, one is the former Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou where Fu Sian worked, one is Huang Jiyou as director of school affairs, president of the Sun Yat-sen University in Henan, that is, in 1930 by the establishment of 1923 Zhongzhou University renamed Henan University. uang Jiyou was a native of Chenghai, Guangdong province. In 1926, at the age of 42, Huang Jiyou joined the teaching staff of Guangdong University, which had just been renamed as Sun Yat-sen University, and was a true all-rounder. Huang Jiyou studied at the Tokyo Higher Normal School in Japan, the University of Chicago in the United States, served as a professor at the Tianjin Higher Technical School, head of the mathematics and science department at the Wuchang Higher Normal School, head of the mathematics department at the Wuchang Normal University, head of the mathematics and science department at Henan Zhongzhou University and many other university teaching positions, returned to Guangdong in 1935 to continue teaching at Sun Yat-sen University, Xin Shu banner for his students. After leaving Guangzhou, Fu Sneddon encountered a bottleneck and still needed his predecessors at Zhongshan University in Guangdong to solve the problem, and it was Huang Jiyou, in his capacity as Director of Education of Henan Province, who finally participated in the formulation of the "solution to the excavation of the Yin ruins at Anyang" by the Henan government and the Central Research Institute. Huang's contribution to the excavation of the ruins is no longer recalled.
The collaboration between the Institute and the University was an important advantage in having a source of talent. As a student of literature at Sun Yat-sen University, Gu Jie Gang was quite highly regarded.In 1928, Chen Nuan took Gu's "Shanggu class", "Study of the Shang Shu" and "Spring and Autumn", and received individual guidance，a correspondence between students and faculty on 'A Study of the Evolution of the Deeds of the Yellow Emperor' was published in the Weekly of the Institute of Language and History, Sun Yat-sen University.. After graduating in 1931, he joined the Institute of History and Philology and was promoted to researcher in 1946.
Thanks to the coordination of Huang Jiyou and others, Henan University was able to send students to participate in the excavations at Yinxu, and Shi Zhangru and Li Yao (Yin Da) were among the first students to participate in the excavations in 1931, graduating in 1932 and joining the Institute of History and Philology, where they grew up to become major figures in the field of archaeology. In the last paragraph of his unfinished report on the pottery of the two towns of Rizhao, Liu Yao wrote: "Farewell to the archaeological career that has been with us for seven years!" Liu Yao went to Yan'an during the anti-Japanese war and changed his name to Yin Da On 18 December 1928, Dong Zubin wrote to Fu Sinian, informing him that he and Li Ji had decided to start work in the spring and to recommend Guo Baojun as an assistant to the Institute, with the intention of submitting his report within a month. Guo Baojun's appointment was not successful, and I am sure Mr. Fu Snr regretted it at this time. It was only after this that Mr Guo was recruited as an important assistant to Dong Zubin. Dong Zubin also recommended Yin Da and Shi Zhangru for the Institute of History and Language. In 1931, Guo Baojun took part in the excavations at Xincun, and published "The Cleaning of the Ancient Remains of the Tomb at Xincun, Jion County" in the Journal of Collected Works based on his field notes.
In 1928, Mr. Yang Chengzhi, who graduated from the Department of History at Lingnan University, just joined the Institute of Philology and History at Sun Yat-sen University, and was immediately tasked with the joint investigation of the Institute of Philology and History of the Academia Sinica and the Institute of Philology and History of Sun Yat-sen University, and only returned to Guangzhou in 1930 after two years of investigation in Yunnan.It can be said that he was the first or the second person after Dong Zubin to "travel on official business" for the Institute A letter dated 28 December 1928 to Fu Sinian, concerned about the recent situation of the Institute of History and Philology, was very happy to read the Shanghai newspaper in Yunnan and learn that Zhao Yuanren had gone to Guangdong to conduct a survey of the dialects of the two Cantons. In 1930, when the Institute of Historical Studies had already moved to Beiping, Yang Chengzhi was still on a 'business trip'. During his research in Yunnan, he investigated the Yi people in depth, and the Yi codex he collected, The Handwritten Classics of the Ming Yishu of Kunming Xixiang, Yunnan, is still the earliest of the Yi texts found. In Yunnan Yang Chengzhi wrote no less than nine letters to Fu Sinian (some of them to both Gu Jiegang and Fu), reporting on his investigations. In a letter to Rong Zhaozu from the Jinsha Riverfront on 26 March 1929, Yang Chengzhi wrote: "I received a letter from Beiming Jun today and was pleased to learn that we have a number of special issues of the Folklore Weekly." "During my unpredictable travels, I have repeatedly wanted to write to you, but I have often reported to Mr. Meng Zhen and Mr. Gu Jie, and I thought you must read them. --So I have repeatedly put pen to paper, but I have not been able to write. When Yu Yongliang seriously ill , his trip to Paris could not be made, 1930 Yang Chengzhi returned to Guangzhou tried to request Fu Sinian let the opportunity to himself, access to "Fu Sinian posthumous note", Fu Sinian May 20, 1930 letter back refused, Fu Si this letter or to Li Fanggui forward. The beginning of the polite: "Yunnan is under my feet, I repeatedly want to write, but do not know the address, so I could not write, apologies!" The letter states that "I think there is a misunderstanding about studying abroad, for one thing, Mr Yu is not going to study, but to copy books. Secondly, although he was ill and could not go, he was not 'out of work'. If he cannot go later, (and we hope at this time that he will soon be well enough to go) the matter will either be dropped, or another person familiar with the Six Dynasties, Sui and Tang, will be found to go, and it will have nothing to do with your business." "The allowance of 30 yuan per day (I wanted to send this amount at that time, but since I did not know the exact amount and Mr. Jie Gang said that my brother was going to rebel, I did not send it from Shanghai.) The Institute should be separated from the CUHK Institute until such time." Yang Chengzhi in the letter to Fu Sinian should be fighting for the pending title (editorial staff) and the opportunity to stay in France, the leadership is busy for two years without replying to letters, indifferent to front-line cadres, a reply to the letter seriously very and for ideological and moral education, "Yunnan two years of things, just this spirit is commendable, can not call themselves to have results, can not listen to compliments." The appointment of editorial staff is not possible, but only as an assistant, with a monthly salary of 120 yuan.
A man should be tough, Mr. Xin Shu Biao loved talent and sent Yang Chengzhi to study at the School of Anthropology at the University of Paris in France in 1930, where he received a certificate in anthropology and a doctorate in ethnology from the University of Paris in 1933, returning to China in 1935 to teach at Sun Yat-sen University. At the outbreak of the war against Japan, Yang Chengzhi, Huang Jiyou and Yung Zhaozu moved from place to place to educate people, supervising postgraduate students at the Graduate School of National Sun Yat-sen University in Ping Shi, northern Guangdong, and training a number of elites in Chinese anthropology, ethnology, history and even mathematics and astronomy, such as Liang Zhaotao. In 1942, he became a part-time supervising professor in the Department of History at the Graduate School of Sun Yat-sen University.
Yang Yunru and Huang Cui-bo were also classmates at the Tsinghua University Graduate School, and after graduating they joined Sun Yat-sen University as pre-professors before moving to the Institute of History and Philology. Zhu Fangpu was not with the Institute of History and Philology for long, but was one of the first assistants to be hired. The chronicle of Zhu Fangpu records that he was introduced by Yu Yongliang to the Institute of History and Language in the autumn of 1928, and published a number of articles such as "Review of the study of the ancient history of Wei Guoxian" in the weekly magazine of the Institute of Language and History at Sun Yat-sen University. In the spring of 1929, Yang Yunru took leave of absence due to illness and entrusted Zhu Fangpu to teach on his behalf, leaving Guangzhou in August for Wenzhou to work as a Chinese language teacher in Zhejiang Tenth Middle School. The colleagues who took part in its creation and research have left the Institute of History and Philology with many blossoming branches. Their fates and futures differed. Mr. Shang Chengjo, who engraved the first seal of the Institute, joined the faculty of the Women's Normal College in Beiping in the autumn of 1939, and returned to teach at Sun Yat-sen University in the autumn of 1948. The budget form had a salaried Chang Hui to join the National Academy of Peking, and Zhu Fangpu taught in the Department of Chinese Literature and History at Henan University in the summer of 1931. Yang Yunru left the Institute of Historical Studies in September 1929 to teach at Jinan University in Shanghai, and in the summer of 1931 he joined the National Tsingtao University (the predecessor of Shandong University), before teaching at Henan University in 1933. Huang Cui Bo left the Institute of Historical Studies in October 1929 to teach at National Tsingtao University. When the Institute moved north, the earliest group of scholars who did not move with the Institute gathered at the university, apart from Sun Yat-sen University, was Qingdao University.
After the founding of New China, Gu Jie-gang, the first sign-writer at the Institute of Historical Studies in Dongshan Baiyuan of the Institute of History and philology, moved from Shanghai to Beijing in 1954 as a researcher at the Institute of History, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and in 1950 Xin Shu-banner was again director of the Northwest Agricultural College. Rong Zhaozu was a researcher at the Cultural Heritage Group of the Beijing Cultural and Educational Commission from 1952 to 1956, and a professor at the Institute of Philosophy and Social Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1956. In the winter of 1949 Yang Chengzhi joined the Central Committee for Ethnic Affairs to compile an Outline Map of China's Ethnic Minority Regions and a Short List of Chinese Ethnic Minority Writing, and in 1952 he was involved in the founding of the Central University for Nationalities and the Director of the Cultural Relics Department.
Those who attended the meeting at Fu's home on 21 October 1928 included nine teachers from Sun Yat-sen University, including Fu Sinian, Gu Jiegang, Ding Shan, Shang Chengjo, Luo Yong, Luo Changpei, Rong Zhaozu, Yu Yongliang and Huang Zhongqin, who deserved to be the true founders of the Institute of History and Philology. Many of those who attended the meeting the day before the official relocation of the Institute died prematurely, and several left this world at a young age.Yu Yongliang became mentally ill in 1930 and remained so for the rest of his life, passed away in 1951. Huang Zhongqin died in Hong Kong in 1942 after a long illness. Ding Shan left the Institute of Historical Studies in 1932 and his last position was teaching at Shandong University, where he sadly died prematurely in 1952. In 1927, Luo Yong joined Sun Yat-sen University as head of the Chinese Department and attended the meeting on 21 October. In 1931, Luo Yong (Luo Yingzhong) left Guangzhou to teach at Zhejiang University, and his book 《习坎庸言》 was entitled Xi Kan Zhai “习坎斋”, after the name of Luo's bookstore. He left Yunnan University before April 1950 and was appointed director of the Beijing History Museum before his death in 1950. At that time Mr. Luo was teaching at Mianren High School, founded by Mr. Liang Shuming.
Ⅳ.The historical contribution of the Institute of History and Philology of the National Academies
The establishment of the Institute of History of the Academia Sinica is inextricably linked to the founding of the Institute of Philology and History of Sun Yat-sen University, but also to the special geographical location of Guangzhou, which has been able to become the birthplace of modern Chinese humanities thanks to the social and humanistic atmosphere laid down by Dr Sun Yat-sen, who infused the city with the genes of revolutionary innovation and tolerance and openness.
In retrospect, the Guangzhou-era Institute of History and philology made a historic contribution to the exploration of the establishment of the humanities in China by its academic predecessors nearly a century ago, and to the revival of the Chinese nation through the establishment of academia to save the country.
(1) It explored a win-win academic research model that relied on universities to establish national research institutions in terms of human resources and academic results, with research and study growing together and teachers and students learning together, not alone.
(2) It takes advantage of Guangzhou's geographical advantage and humanistic environment to attract overseas students to return to serve the country and show their patriotism, and the world's modern scientific research methods are directly applied to the study of Chinese culture.
(3) Breaking the backward mindset that Chinese studies are not the orthodoxy of Peking University and Tsinghua University, and cultivating talents from all walks of life, and injecting fresh blood into the study of Chinese humanities to escape the situation of inbreeding.
(4) It broke out of the study to create a new situation of field investigation and cultivated a hard-working academic culture.
(5) For the first time in modern Chinese humanities, archaeology, anthropology, ethnology and folklore produced such a concentration of research results in terms of quantity and quality.
(6) The academic research fields and directions that had been maintained for nearly a century were defined, and traditional research methods and thinking were revolutionised, insisting that what Westerners could do in Chinese cultural studies should certainly be done by the Chinese and not replaced.
(7) Initiated action for the preservation of Chinese cultural heritage and intangible cultural heritage, and took practical action to organize Chinese cultural heritage for its continuation.
(8) The multi-ethnic character of Chinese culture began to enter the field of academic research in a steady stream.
In view of this, a proposal for the conservation and use of the Park Garden site was submitted at the end of February 2022 and was accepted by the relevant parties. On 3 June 2022, I went back to Puyuan in Dongshan and found that there were still unresolved issues. I was very pleased to receive a response to my recent request. I was told that the Puyuan compound could be injected with the content of the dialect of the Taishan story of the "bride hunter" in the research results of Mr Zhao Yuanren, and that the oracle bone inscriptions of Shang Chengjo and Dong Zuobin could be used outdoors to establish the "Dongshan Reading Room". "The more public space there is, the more enjoyable it will be for the people and the more relieved the ancestors will be.
Finished on 11 June 2022, Cultural and Natural Heritage Day
One of the single publications of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
Guangxi Yao Songs
by Zhao Yuanren
Published at the Institute of History and Language, Beiping
Published in the 19th year of the Republic of China
Price: 1 yuan
Guangxi Yao Songs, by Zhao Yuanren. The book contains one hundred and ninety-seven songs, which can be divided into three parts: (1) ninety songs of the Yao tribe, (2) twelve songs of the December flowering, and (3) ninety-five songs of the Azi. The book contains a list of all the Chinese characters of the Yao songs, with the international phonetic alphabet used to indicate the Yao sounds. The preface by Mr. Zhao, in the first section, describes the phonetic situation, the second section provides a phonetic overview of the Yao songs, explaining their status in phonetics, and the third section provides examples of phonetic notation. The study of the ethnic groups of south-west China, especially in the area of phonetics, has only been systematically investigated and studied to a small extent by Westerners and Japanese. The Chinese know to stay engaged in research, or to start with Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou. Mr. Zhao's book is based on what he heard from Mr. Yishan in Guangzhou in 1928, and it is the first book in Chinese academia to formally study the southwestern ethnic phonetics in a scientific way. We hope that after Mr. Zhao has started this path, he will continue to work on the study of the language, folklore, and ethnicity of various ethnic groups, so as to shed new light on and contribute to the origin and status of the Southwestern ethnic groups and their place in Chinese cultural history. (Fang)
The Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Single Issue No. 4
Xiamen Sound System
by Luo Changpei
Published at the Institute of History and Philology, Beiping
Published in the 19th year of the Republic of China
Price: 2 yuan
Xiamen Phonology, by Luo Changpei. Mr. Luo says in his narrative, "Xiamen is a very important dialect in China. It is a dialect spoken by twelve or fifteen million people, from Minnan to Chaoshan, Qiongya, Taiwan, the Philippines, Singapore, and the South Pacific Islands.
However, within this large dialect area, the dialects are of course still very different from each other and cannot be identical. The most popular and common dialects are those spoken in Xiamen and Gulangyu, which are the only ones with this status. The scope of this study is limited for the time being to the Xiamen dialect in the latter narrow sense." As for the characteristics of the Xiamen phonetic system, Mr. Luo says clearly in his preface, "As for the characteristics of Xiamen phonetic system, we can see the ancient and modern changes: the vowels have tongues but not tongues, there are accents but not light sounds, there are teeth but not teeth, the whole turbid is mixed with the whole clear, and the second turbid is half-turned into the whole turbid; the rhymes are mixed, the stems will not be different, ho calculate but with the song, Hou lavish but into the mold, ride ants to save the branch of the old sound, nasal rhyme for the turn The rhymes are all written in the chapter. If the exploration of the nature of language, the completion of the grammar of the word series, not only is the phonetic system is not comprehensive, for the sake of the other day. (Fang)
The first book of the collection of the Institute of History and Philology of the National Academia Sinica, the third quarter, published in the Institute of History and Philology of Beiping, published in the nineteenth year of the Republic of China, priced at three cents and eighty-eight cents and four cents and ninety-nine cents, volume five, number four, of the National Beiping Library Journal 115.
(All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from Nan Yue Ancient Post Road Network.)